there is a bug in the vagrant installer on windows that will be fixed in the next release of the Authoring Tool.
Until this release it is best to test the vagrant installer with this branch: https://github.com/adaptlearning/adapt_authoring/tree/issue/1087
Please keep in mind that this branch is not the official release branch of the Authoring Tool. So I recommend it just to test if the changes in this branch fix your issues.
To create log files on windows, I usually stream the output into a text file.
vagrant up > log.txt
This will create a log.txt in the root of your current working directory. One downside, the output is not visible in the terminal.